Philippines A country of eastern Asia consisting of the Philippine Islands, an archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean southeast of China. Before the ratification of the 1981 amendment of the, The Commonwealth had already been temporarily restored in, Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquino both took their, Accounts differ on when martial law was officially established. During the Japanese occupation of the Martial law was lifted by Ferdinand Marcos on 17 January 1981 through Proclamation No. The current constitution came into effect in 1987, marking the beginning of the Fifth Republic.[4]. Fourth Philippine Republic synonyms, Fourth Philippine Republic pronunciation, Fourth Philippine Republic translation, English dictionary definition of Fourth Philippine Republic. Carlos P. Garcia, fourth president of the Republic of the Philippines. The Commonwealth was inaugurated on November 15, 1935 at Manila, and ended upon independence on July 4, 1946. President Ferdinand Marcos ruled by decree when he declared martial law on September 21, 1972. Fourth President of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines Birthdate: April 5, 1947 Term: 2001 - present Description: The daughter of the late President Diosdado Macapagal. July 4 in turn has been observed as Republic Day since then. Emilio Aguinaldo became the inaugural president of the Philippines under the Malolos Republic, considered the First Philippine Republic. This unicameral assembly was created through the sponsorship of the Japanese authorities. The opposition boycotted the June 16, 1981 presidential elections, which pitted Marcos and his Kilusang Bagong Lipunan party against retired Gen. Alejo Santos of the Nacionalista Party. Term began with the formal establishment of the Philippine Commonwealth. Jose P. Laurel July 4, 1946 to August 17, 1945 (Took office on October 14, 1943) Third Republic of the Philippines. Prior to the presidential governance, the Philippines was governed by a succession of Spanish military generals during colonization of Spain. Two women have held the office: Corazon Aquino (1986–92), who ascended to the presidency upon the successful People Power Revolution of 1986, and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (2001–10), who, as vice president, ascended to the presidency upon Estrada's resignation and was elected to a full six-year term in 2004. [4] A change in government occurred three years later when the Second Philippine Republic was organized with the enactment of the 1943 Constitution, which Japan imposed after it occupied the Philippines in 1942 during World War II. Jose P. Laurel (March 9, 1891 - November 5, 1959). First Philippine President. (May 28, 1946- July 15, 1946) last President of the Commonwealth. With the People Power Revolution, Corazon Aquino 's assumption into power marked the restoration of democracy in the country. [4] The American colonization of the Philippines abolished the First Republic,[7] which led to an American governor-general exercising executive power. Spain ceded all of its remaining possessions, including the Philippines, save for Cuba at the end of the Spanish–American War via the Treaty of Paris. 1972–87: Martial law and the Fourth Republic President Ferdinand Marcos ruled by decree when he declared martial law on September 21, 1972. Assumed presidency by claiming victory in the disputed 1986, The Second Republic was later declared by the. Under the present Constitution of the Philippines, the president of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangulo ng Pilipinas) is both the head of state and the head of government, and is the commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces. The President of the Philippines is elected by direct vote by the people for a term of six years. Assumed presidency by claiming victory in the disputed 1986, The Malolos Republic, an independent revolutionary state that is actually the first, The Second Republic was later declared by the. After graduating from law school in 1923, he became, successively, a schoolteacher, representative in the Philippine Congress, governor of his province (Bohol), and then (1941–53) senator. Marcos stayed in office for 20 years—the longest serving President of the Philippines. Term of Office: March 22, 1897 – April 1, 1901 ... of Mary. In 1964, Congress passed Republic Act No. On June 16, 1981, right after the lifting of martial law, the first presidential election in twelve years was held. On July 4, 1946, full independence was granted to the Republic of the Philippines by the United States. He was elected by the National Assembly as President of the Republic on September 25, 1943 and inducted on October 14, 1943. He became the first president of the independent Philippines when the Commonwealth ended on July 4 of that year. Of the individuals elected as president, three died in office: two of natural causes (Manuel L. Quezon[18] and Manuel Roxas[19]) and one in a plane crash (Ramon Magsaysay, 1953–57[20]). While sources such as, On January 17, 1973, while martial law was still in effect, the, Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas, Partido Demokratiko Pilipino–Lakas ng Bayan, United Nationalist Democratic Organization, List of presidents of the Philippines by time in office, List of unofficial presidents of the Philippines, First Lady or Gentleman of the Philippines, List of vice presidents of the Philippines, List of current heads of state and government, Heads of state and government of the Philippines, List of sovereign state leaders in the Philippines, Koalisyon ng Katapatan at Karanasan sa Kinabukasan, "TRAVEL Inside Malacañang Complex, 3 places to visit for a charming date with history", Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office, "Malacañang sa Sugbo still the president's official residence in Cebu", "The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines", National Historical Commission of the Philippines, "Today is the birth anniversary of President Jose P. Laurel", "The real Manuel Luis Quezon, beyond the posture and bravura", "Heart Attack Fatal to Philippine Pres. The colors indicate the political party affiliation of each individual. FERDINAND E. MARCOS Third Republic - Fourth Republic December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986 Era: Tenth President of the Philippines Sixth and Last President of the Third Republic First President of the Fourth Republic Constitution: Amended 1935 Constitution 1973 … Her rule as president began on February 25, 1986 after taking oath at the Club Filipino in San Juan, Metro Manila. He declared the Fourth Republic on January 17, 1981, after martial law was lifted. While the line of succession of presidency is formally recognized starting with the ascension to power of Emilio Aguinaldo as a revolutionary president, it does not mean however, that the Philippines did not have a civil government prior to the Philippine Revolution. The postwar provisional president Charles de Gaulle resigned in 1946, expecting that public support would bring him back to power with a mandate to impose his constitutional ideas. He was sworn into office wearing the Barong Tagalog, a first by a Philippine president. The second woman to be swept into the Presidency by a peaceful People Power revolution (EDSA II). Sought an election for a full term, but was unsuccessful. The first national presidential election was held,[note 3] and Manuel L. Quezon (1935–44) was elected to a six-year term, with no provision for re-election,[12] as the second Philippine president and the first Commonwealth president. > only career professional soldier, and the oldest among the presidents. The end of the Fourth Philippine Republicball was caused by the peaceful EDSA Revolution, which ousted Ferdinand Marcos from power, thus giving birth to Philippinesball. In the waning years of Spanish dominion in the Philippines, a Philippine Revolution occurred. The vice president of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangalawang Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as Bise Presidente ng Pilipinas, or in Spanish: Vice Presidente de Filipinas) is the second-highest executive official of the government of the Philippines, after the president.The vice president currently holds office at the Quezon City Reception House in Quezon City. This page was last changed on 27 September 2020, at 18:03. The President of the United States is represented first by military governors, then by civilian Governors-General up to 1935. (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989). The dates followed by their names are the dates of their terms: Presidents of the Philippines from Past to Present: 1. 1081, proclaiming a state of martial law in the Philippines on September 21. Joseph "Erap" Estrada. THE FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC Tho ugh short-lived, the First Philippine, nonetheless catapulted the Filipino nation onto the world’s consciousness carving not only a place among the family of nations but also a distinct niche as the first republic in Asia. The Liberal Party was not yet a party in itself at the time, but only a wing of the, The Liberal Party was split into two opposing wings for the 1949 election: the Avelino wing, led by presidential aspirant. First Republic of the Philippines (Malolos Republic) Emilio Aguinaldo January 23, 1899 to … First Republic of the Philippines (Malolos Republic) Emilio Aguinaldo January 23, 1899 to March 23, 1901. Term was originally until 15 Nov 1943, due to constitutional limitations as provided by the 1940 amendment of the 1935 Constitution, which shortened the terms of the president and the vice president from six to four years but allowed re-election. Sought an election for a full term, but was unsuccessful. Corazon Aquino, president from 1986 to 1992. It was in many ways a revival of the Third Republic that was in place from 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War to 1940 during World War II, and suffered many of the same problems. For colonial chief executives of the Philippines prior to the ratification of the. Since independence in 1898 and the ratification of the Philippine Constitution in the First Republic, there have been 15 presidents. 1986 - The Spanish monarchy was represented by the Governor-General from 1565 to 1898. Finance Minister Cesar Virata was elected as Prime Minister by the Batasang Pambansa. The shortest is Sergio Osmeña, who spent 1 year and 300 days in office. He inaugurated the "New Society" after a new constitution was ratified on January 17, 1973. With the restoration, Sergio Osmeña reorganized the government and appointed cabinet which he charged with the responsibility of solving the problems that confronted the nation. Rigobert… The reason why this country is damned. Term began with the formal establishment of the Philippine Commonwealth. Aguinaldo took the oath of allegiance to the US nine days later, effectively ending the republic. The President has three official residences, with the Malacañang Palace Complex as the principal abode and workplace. The military governors were appointed by the Spanish royals to govern the civil government of the archipelago. Osmena returned to the Philippines on October 20, 1944, together with Gen. Douglas MacArthur. He may only serve for one term, and is ineligible for reelection. Roxas", "The ritual climbing of the main stairs of...", "Death Anniversary of President Ramon Magsaysay", National Citizens' Movement for Free Elections, "Marcos and his failure to provide for an orderly political succession", "SC: People's welfare is the supreme law", "Presidency and Vice Presidency by the Numbers: Rodrigo Roa Duterte and Leni Robredo", https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_presidents_of_the_Philippines&oldid=7124748, Articles containing Filipino-language text, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, Association for Service to the New Philippines, Struggle of the Patriotic Filipino Masses, People Power–Partner of the Free Filipino–Christian Muslim Democrats, People Power–National Union of Christian Democrats, Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power. After graduating from law school in 1923, he became, successively, a schoolteacher, representative in the Philippine Congress, governor of his province (Bohol), and then (1941–53) senator. Instead, the constituent assembly chose the socialist Félix Gouin to replace him. This is a list of the current and former Philippine Presidents by previous Executive Experience before they became President of the Philippines.Executive experience is defined as having been something to where one is the top decision maker in a company, a regional constituency, a military unit, or something alike. a republic in SE Asia, occupying an archipelago of about 7100 islands (including Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, and Negros): became a Spanish colony in 1571 but ceded to the US in 1898 after the Spanish-American War; gained independence in 1946. The Inauguration of the First Philippine Republic in Malolos, January 23, 1899. 2/F Kalayaan Hall, Malacañang J.P. Laurel Street, San Miguel, Manila Contact Number (63-2) 8 784 4286 loc. The history of the Philippines, from 1965–1986, covers the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, also known as the Ferdinand Marcos administration.The Marcos era includes the final years of the Third Republic (1965–1972), the Philippines under martial law (1972–1981), and the majority of the Fourth Republic … The Spaniards colonized the Philippines as the Captaincy General of the Philippines. The term of the President of the Philippines starts at noon of the 30th day of June after the election. [4], Manuel Roxas (1946–1948) followed Picar when he won the first post-war election in 1946. He was able to restore the Government of Commonwealth of the Philippines upon the liberation of Manila. Define Fourth Philippine Republic. The Second Republic was inaugurated on October 14, 1943 in Manila, and ended when President Jose P. Laurel dissolved the republic on August 17, 1945, in Tokyo. He inaugurated the "New Society" after a new constitution was ratified on January 17, 1973. Mula pa noong 1993, may mga historyador tulad nila Dr. Milagros Guerrero, Ramon Villegas at Emmanuel Encarnacion na nagsasabing si Andres Bonifacio, hindi si Emilio Aguinaldo ang … The Third Republic was ushered in and would cover the administrations of the next five presidents, the last of which was Ferdinand Marcos (1965–86),[4] who performed a self-coup by imposing martial law in 1972. Under the present Constitution of the Philippines, the president of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangulo ng Pilipinas) is both the head of state and the head of government, and serves as the commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces. France adopted the constitution of the Fourth Republic on 13 October 1946. Since the declaration of Philippine Independence , the country had already produced 15 presidents. The Second Republic was dissolved after Japan surrendered to the Allies in 1945; the Commonwealth was restored in the Philippines in the same year with Sergio Osmeña (1944–46) as president. The 15 Presidents of the Republic of the Philippines The Philippines declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898 after 333 years of Spanish colonization. For example, Term ended when Aguinaldo was captured by US forces in. In 1983, opposition leader Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. was assassinated at the Manila International Airport upon his return t… [8], In 1935, the United States, pursuant to its promise of full Philippine sovereignty,[9] established the Commonwealth of the Philippines following the ratification of the 1935 Constitution, which also restored the presidency. While sources such as, On 17 January 1973, while martial law was still in effect, the, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas, Partido Demokratiko Pilipino–Lakas ng Bayan, United Nationalist Democratic Organization, Koalisyon ng Katapatan at Karanasan sa Kinabukasan, Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office, "Second Inaugural Address of President Quezon", "Sergio Osmena, Second President of the Philippines", "Macapagal legacy casts shadow on today's issues", "1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines", "The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines", "The real Manuel Luis Quezon, beyond the posture and bravura", "Today is the birth anniversary of President Jose P. Laurel", "Sergio Osmeña: Remembering the Grand Old Man of Cebu", National Historical Commission of the Philippines, "Speech of General Douglas MacArthur upon turning over to President Sergio Osmena the full powers and responsibilities of the Commonwealth Government under the Constitution", "Heart Attack Fatal to Philippine Pres. Roxas", "Death Anniversary of President Ramon Magsaysay", "Second Inaugural Address of President Quezon", "Sergio Osmena, Second President of the Philippines", "Macapagal legacy casts shadow on today's issues", "Address of President Macapagal on Independence Day", "1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines", "Sergio Osmeña: Remembering the Grand Old Man of Cebu", "Speech of General Douglas MacArthur upon turning over to President Sergio Osmena the full powers and responsibilities of the Commonwealth Government under the Constitution", "The ritual climbing of the main stairs of...", National Citizens' Movement for Free Elections, "Marcos and his failure to provide for an orderly political succession", "SC: People's welfare is the supreme law", "Presidency and Vice Presidency by the Numbers: Rodrigo Roa Duterte and Leni Robredo", Office of the President of the Philippines, Former presidents who pursued public office, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_presidents_of_the_Philippines&oldid=998810252, Lists of political office-holders in the Philippines, Articles containing Filipino-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Association for Service to the New Philippines, Struggle of the Patriotic Filipino Masses, People Power–Partner of the Free Filipino–Christian Muslim Democrats, People Power–National Union of Christian Democrats, Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 03:47. On her first day as congresswoman, Arroyo filed a resolution calling for Congress to hold a Constitutional Convention to amend the constitution. Upon an incumbent president's death, permanent disability, resignation, or removal from office, the vice president assumes the post.[5]. The Liberal Party was not yet a party in itself at the time, but only a wing of the, Term ended when he dissolved the Second Republic in the wake of, The Liberal Party was split into two opposing wings for the 1949 election: the Avelino wing, led by presidential aspirant. Exodus 20. On July 4, 1946, Manuel Roxas President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, again took his oath as President, but this time as President of the Republic of the Philippines. Article Title. Here is the list of the country's presidents. [note 2] In 1940, however, the Constitution was amended to allow re-election but shortened the term to four years. Thus, this list starts from the ratification of 1899 Constitution where Emilio Aguinaldo was the President of the Republic of the Philippines. Fourth Republic, government of the French Republic from 1946 to 1958. This assassination attempt together with the general citizen disquiet, were used by Marcos as reasons to issue Presidential Proclamation No. History soon The colors indicate the political party affiliation of each individual. In chronological order, the presidents started with Manuel L. Quezon, Emilio Aguinaldo, the official first president, was elected by the. 1943-1945 President of the Japanese Sponsored Republic (became the president of the Philippines during the Japanese occupation of world war II. In 1986, the EDSA Revolution successfully installed Corazon C. Aquino as the new President of the Philippines—the 11th in the country’s history. [13] José P. Laurel acted as puppet president of the new Japanese-sponsored government;[14] his de facto presidency,[15] not legally recognized until the 1960s,[16] overlapped with that of the president of the Commonwealth, which went into exile. God is a jealous God, He will visit the iniquity from the 3rd to the fourth generation. The Third Republic started when independence was granted by the Americans on July 4, 1946, and ended upon the imposition of martial law by President Ferdinand Marcos on September 21, 1972. Corazon Aquino administration (1986–1992) Main article: Presidency of Corazon Aquino. After the widowed wife of former Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Sr. was elected into office, President Corazon Cojuangco-Aquino faced both economic and political problems of the country. During the Japanese occupation of the Carlos P. Garcia, fourth president of the Republic of the Philippines. The assassination attempt was widely believed to have been staged; Enrile himself admitted to the assassination attempt to have been staged but he would later retract his claim. Philippines Republic of the. * Non-scheduled (extraordinary) inaugurations. Second Republic of the Philippines. Bucking to international pressure to legitimize his decades-long rule, a visibly ailing President Marcos called for a snap Presidential election in February 1986, ahead of its original schedule in 1987. Before the ratification of the 1981 amendment of the, The Commonwealth had already been temporarily restored in, Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquino both took their, Accounts differ on when martial law was officially established. On June 30, 2010, Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III, a.k.a Noynoy and PNoy, was proclaimed as the 15th president of the republic together with Jejomar Cabauatan Binay as vice-president. Earlier under the American colonization, the president of the United States appointed four military generals. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 1899–1901: First Republic (Malolos Republic), 1972–87: Martial law and the Fourth Republic. The 4th Republic of the Philippines The Executive Branch June 30, 1981: President Marcos announced the beginning of the Fourth Republic during his inaugural speech. Since independence in 1898 and the ratification of the Philippine Constitution in the First Republic, there have been 15 presidents. In 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo achieved independence of the Philippines from Spain and was elected the first president of the new republic under the Malolos Congress. His tenure lasted until 1986 when he was deposed in the People Power Revolution. First President of the Philippines, Emilio Aguinaldo, in the field. The Third Republic was ushered in and would cover the administrations of the next five presidents, the last of which was Ferdinand Marcos (1965–86), who performed a self-coup by imposing martial law in 1972. These Adverts help to pay for this site ai8. For the purposes of numbering, a presidency is defined as an uninterrupted period of time in office served by one person. Later sought election or re-election to a non-consecutive term. Marcos became the first President of the Fourth Republic and the tenth President of the Philippines overall. February 7, 1986: Snap Presidential Election June 16, 1981: Ferdinand Marcos won the Presidential Election. Citation Information. 4166, which formally designated June 12 of every year as the date on which we celebrate Philippine independence. First president of the independent republic of the Philippines… The Americans had already begun controlling areas not controlled by the First Republic after the Spanish cession. The Philippines then was considered as an overseas territory of the United States. Starting with General Emilio Aguinaldo all the way to current president Benigno Aquino, this article details each president's particular contributions and … On September 23, 1972, then-Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrilewas ambushed while en route home. (August 31, 1907 - March 17, 1957) Ramon del Fierro Magsaysay Seventh President Third President of the Third Republic 1953 - 1957 He is known as the president of the masses. Later sought election or re-election to a non-consecutive term. Manuel Roxas. Spain had a civilian colonial government established in the Philippine islands for over four centuries spearheaded by a governor appointed by the viceroy of Mexico. The Philippines History- During Martial Law years by: Hanan Edres 2. For example, Term ended when Aguinaldo was captured by US forces in. The plebiscite took place on February 2, 1987. Manuel A. Roxas (January 1, 1892 - April 15, 1948). President Roxas takes his oath of office during the Independence Ceremony of July 4, 1946. This occurred while Spain and the United States were both engaged in a war for control of the Philippine islands. This led to the establishment of a brief revolutionary government. The Philippine During Martial law years 1. Marcos won by a margin of over 16 million votes, which constitutionally allowed him to have another six-year term. First President Of Philippine Commonwealth (1935) - YouTube In February 1945, he took the reins of government. Fourth Republic. During his term, he made Malacañáng Palace literally a "house of the people", opening its gates to the public. The First Philippine Republic was inaugurated on January 23, 1899 at Malolos, and ended on March 23, 1901 when President Emilio Aguinaldo was captured by the Americans at Palanan. [17] The dictatorship of Marcos saw the birth of the New Society (Filipino: Bagong Lipunan) and the Fourth Republic. FERDINAND E. MARCOS Third Republic - Fourth Republic December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986 Era: Tenth President of the Philippines Sixth and Last President of the Third Republic First President of the Fourth Republic Constitution: Amended 1935 Constitution 1973 Constitution Amended 1973 Constitution 12. President Sergio Osmeña … As expected, President Marcos ran and won a massive victory over the other "almost unknown" candidates On June 30, 1981, President Marcos Was inaugurated in drandiose ceremonies and proclaimaed the "Birth of a new Republic" Martial law was lifted by Ferdinand Marcos on January 17, 1981 through Proclamation No. Aguinaldo took the oath of allegiance to the US nine days later, effectively ending the republic. He became the first president of the independent Philippines when the Commonwealth ended on July 4 of that year. The islands are generally mountainous and volcanic. The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution. It later transferred the civil governance to an appointed governor-general, both under the Insular and Commonwealth periods. [4] The president is directly elected by qualified voters of the population to a six-year term and must be "a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election". The Marcos administration (1965–72) First term On 1965, Ferdinand Marcos won the Presidential election and became the 10th President of the Philippines. President Corazon Aquino inaugurated the Fifth Republic after the present constitution was ratified. For the purposes of numbering, a presidency is defined as an uninterrupted period of time in office served by one person. The Americans defeated the Spanish forces,seized control of the islands and undermined the revolutionary government. Term ended when he dissolved the Second Republic in the wake of. He was popularly known as the “First President of the Third Republic.” He won the elections by … About; History; Reservations; 360° View; Presidential Museum and Library. The longest-serving president is Ferdinand Marcos with 20 years and 57 days in office; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. >the launching of the Enhanced Retail Access for the Poor, or ERAP sari-sari stores, and the National Food Authority's rolling stores; Despite the political dysfunction, the Fourth Republic … The governor run the colonial government in behalf of the Spanish crown. Starting with General Emilio Aguinaldo all the way to current president Benigno Aquino, this article details each president's particular contributions and … [6][note 2] He held that office until 1901 when he was captured by United States forces during the Philippine–American War (1899–1902). Any person who has served as president for more than six years is barred from running for the position again. In chronological order, the presidents started with Manuel L. Quezon. THE PROCLAMATION OF MARTIAL LAW The FOURTH REPUBLIC At the height of the series of bomings and growing subversive activities, Marcos stated, ",,,there is throughout the land a state of anarchy and lawlessness, chaos and disorder, turmoil and destruction of a magnitude equivalent Term was originally until 15 Nov 1943, due to constitutional limitations as provided by the 1940 amendment of the 1935 Constitution, which shortened the terms of the president and the vice president from six to four years but allowed re-election. 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[ 4 ] the political affiliation... 'S assumption into Power marked the restoration of democracy in the country Kalayaan! On 27 September 2020, at 18:03 the Commonwealth ended on July 4 of that year 1986: Presidential... 23, 1899 to … Define Fourth Philippine Republic pronunciation, Fourth Philippine Republic. [ 4,! History- during martial law years by: Hanan Edres 2 formal establishment of a brief revolutionary government November 5 1959. Had already produced 15 presidents through Proclamation No American colonization, the president of the Commonwealth ended on 4... A succession of Spanish military generals the Marcos became the first Philippine Republic. [ 4 ], Manuel (! From the ratification of 1899 constitution where Emilio Aguinaldo was captured by US forces in 4, 1946 last... President began on February 2, 1987 was captured by US forces in: Bagong Lipunan ) and the among. Is the list of the Philippine constitution in the waning years of Spanish in... 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