Learning to read: A longitudinal study of word skill development in two curricula. Learn how your comment data is processed.   For six reasons that rhyming is important, check out this post. 5. You'll get phonemic awareness, phonics, and reading comprehension resources ... all free! Why are phoneme segmentation skills important? Also read: How to teach your child to rhyme. 26 Letter Books of Nursery Rhymes & Songs. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Required fields are marked *.  https://www.themeasuredmom.com/why-is-rhyming-important/ […], […] they RHYME. Your email address will not be published. And it’s a very important part of reading success. Learn smart strategies for helping your learners become fluent readers with this free 5-day series! In addition to printable letter and word cards, I will also be adding printable games, plus teaching ideas, activities and links to Letters and Sounds games which you can use on computers or on as interactive whiteboard activities. Why is rhyming important? The Measured Mom Plus is the perfect online membership for Pre-K to third grade educators. (2006). However, a fluent reader who can automatically decode the words can instead give full attention to comprehending the text. Chris never considered himself one of the best poker players. People who report a lifelong history of such experiences are known as synesthetes.Awareness of synesthetic perceptions varies from person to person. 3. Learn the most important writing skills to teach to 2nd & 3rd graders in this free 5-day series! 🙂, Hi, And when you do, you'll get access to our library of subscriber freebies! This is a simple and clear explanation of why rhyming is […], […] Include rhyme, repetition and silliness in your choice of books so that they enjoy what they are reading. Do you know what’s one of the best predictors of how well a kindergartner will learn to read? (2000). Teach rhyming with our nursery rhyme books! As students learn more words, they naturally become more fluent. The method of repeated readings. The printable games look great, can’t wait to try them out 🙂. Learn more here. People who play video games are presented with a specific goal and with immediate, relevant feedback about their progress toward that goal. And when kids understand rhyme, they understand the sounds and rhythm of language. Progress monitoring takes advantage of this combination to motivate students to read. Get strategies and tools to teach a particular topic with a free 5-day email series! When children are familiar with a nursery rhyme or rhyming book, they learn to anticipate the rhyming word. Video: Why reading fluency is important; Challenges Faced by Non-Fluent Readers. I was looking for this information long time ago. Yes; scroll to the very bottom and use the tiny green “print friendly” button. I have SO much to learn! Even if at-risk students do read, they read more slowly than the other students. Each book contains six nursery rhymes or songs. I never understood the “educational” value to rhymes. *Rhyme with your Child Today! Students become fluent by reading. (1974). Towards a model of reading fluency. Hi I am currently going to school to obtain a Masters in early literacy and I happened upon your article about rhymes and nursery rhymes. As you can see, oral recall/retelling, fill in the blank, and question answering are all above 0.6, which indicates there is a strong correlation. Learn my must-follow tips for teaching the alphabet in this free 5-day email series! Hudson, Lane, and Pullen define fluency this way: "Reading fluency is made up of at least three key elements: accurate reading of connected text at a conversational rate with appropriate prosody or expression." I’m so glad you’re here! Students must be actively involved 100 percent of the time and in a multisensory way. In this 7-minute training, members will get quick tips for teaching this important foundational skill. Some students learn to read fluently without explicit instruction. […], Your email address will not be published. This is really insightful, thank you! Why are reading fluency and reading comprehension so highly correlated? They matter, because they rhyme. Print a little book for every letter of the alphabet! This is equal reading time but certainly not an equal number of words read. Learning Disability Quarterly, 6, pp. It can help children understand that words that share common sounds often share common letters. But he is one of the world’s most profitable. It’s if he knows his nursery rhymes. Learn my top strategies for teaching kids to "sound it out". Heckelman (1969) showed that after 29 15-minute sessions, 24 seventh- through ninth-grade boys, who were an average of 3 years behind in reading, gained an average of 1.9 years in reading based on the Oral Gilmore and the California Achievement Test. Hudson, R. F., H. B. LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. J. The effects of material difficulty upon learning disabled children's oral reading and reading comprehension. During the years of work, we have met thousands of disappointed students, who could not trust an essay writing service because of bad experience in the past. Thank you! ), Reading research:  Advances in theory and practice. Not a member yet? Here’s an interesting article on the value of teaching rhyme: Let’s Write Rhyming Picture Books! Examples of teacher modeling include: Teacher modeling involves more than just listening to someone else read. Learn more about the Read Naturally Strategy  Research basis for the Read Naturally Strategy. Subscribing to our email newsletter is completely free. Thank you I agree that the best way to encourage reading is to promote great books! Just click an image to sign up. Is there a way that I could get a copy of this article without all of the ads? Synesthesia or synaesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway. – Kangleipak blog, Free Rhyming Printable Activities for Early Readers - Hey Kelly Marie. Rhyming is important for writing, too. Fluency is the ability to read "like you speak." Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Finally, you make it simple enough that they'll know they've met their goal even before you do. For example, a reader who must focus his or her attention on decoding words may not have enough mental energy left over to think about the meaning of the text. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Educational Statistics. They found that when students reread passages, they got faster at reading the passages, understood them better, and were able to read subsequent passages better as a result of the repeated reading. (1997). Reading Teacher 58(8), pp. It’s now back at the end of this post: https://www.themeasuredmom.com/the-ultimate-list-of-books-that-rhyme/. ), What research has to say about fluency instruction. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), pp. Mostly I promote reading by promoting books. Thank you sooooooo much for all you are sharing!!!!! 3. Many researchers, including Breznitz, Armstrong, Knupp, Lesgold, and Pinnell, have found that fluency is highly correlated with reading comprehension—that is, when a student reads fluently, that student is likely to comprehend what he or she is reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6, pp. The original meaning was in fine art, and there cartoon meant a preparatory drawing for a piece of art such as a painting. Listening to children read aloud: Data from NAEP's integrated reading performance record (IRPR) at grade 4 (NCES Publication 95-726). It can help children understand that words that share common sounds often share common letters. Thank you. Thank you for linking to my post, Lou! Lane, and P. C. Pullen. As they recite nursery rhymes they learn to speak with animated voices. Education resources for parents and teachers, PSPKK123 November 2, 2016  â€¢  34 Comments. This prepares them to make predictions when they read, another important reading skill. Another form of modeling is the neurological impress method. Chris Sparks spent fifteen years studying poker’s dark matter: the hidden dimensions of the game. Members of The Measured Mom Plus get access to our one-click library of printables, with new printables added each month! The term has evolved over time. Editable Seasonal Sight Word Game – MEGA PACK! ​ Developing reading fluency with Read Naturally Strategy programs. They matter, because they rhyme. Skinner, C. H., Logan, P., Robinson, S. L., & Robinson, D. H. (1997). In a 10-minute reading period, a proficient reader who reads 200 words a minute silently could read 2,000 words. Non-fluent readers suffer in at least one of these aspects of reading: they make many mistakes, they read slowly, or they don't read with appropriate expression and phrasing. Improving oral reading skills of educationally handicapped elementary school-aged students through repeated readings. Discover the essential reading comprehension strategies for 2nd & 3rd grade and how to teach them! 2. Knowledge of the content addressed by a text plays an important role in the reader's formation of the text's main ideas (Afflerbach, 1990) and can be traded off to some extent against weak word recognition skills (Adams et al., 1996; Recht and Leslie, 1988). ), What research has to say about reading instruction, 3rd ed., pp. Hi Anna, Thanks so much for your news letter I always look forward to it. Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Practicum paper, Nova University (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Samuels, S. J. As word recognition processes become more automatic, children are likely to allocate more attention to higher-level processes of comprehension. You give students a specific, individual reading goal, and you tell them exactly how you're going to know they've met it. Baa, baa, black sheep, have you any wool? Increasing first graders' reading accuracy and comprehension by accelerating their reading rates. 6. Too often, simply encouraging at-risk students to read doesn't result in increased reading on their part. All those nonsensical verses from your childhood really do matter. Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how. I’m sorry I can’t give you more information! I loved your article and I used your points in my blog post-https://librarianlou.wordpress.com/2016/05/10/more-rhyming-books/. 376–381. This. This year is my first experience teaching kids so young (K-3). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Here are the results of one study by Fuchs, Fuchs, Hosp, and Jenkins that shows how oral reading fluency correlates highly with reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 50(5), pp. We have three separate groups for Pre-K through grade 3. 702-714. For others, however, fluency doesn't develop in the course of normal classroom instruction. 5. Rhyming is fun. lizibalio@yahoo.com. College: Learning the Skills to Pay the Bills This issue of Page One Economics examines two economic models used to study how education, productivity, and income are related. We love using these little books with new readers. Was it from a educational text book or a professional journal. Working memory is important for reasoning and the guidance of decision-making and behavior. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. In fact, the National Reading Panel says this is the most powerful way to improve reading fluency. When children are familiar with a nursery rhyme or rhyming book, they learn to anticipate the rhyming word. I wrote this post three years ago, so I don’t remember my exact references. We recommend signing up for just one at a time. 277–282. I linked back to your post. Rhyming teaches children how language works. In spite of its importance in the world of reading research, many practicing educators do not know about the Simple View of Reading. A child can benefit from teacher modeling once he or she knows at least 50 sight words and has a good sense of beginning sounds. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Since these reading experiences tend to be rewarding for children, they may read more often; thus reading achievement may be a by-product of reading enjoyment. It is a formula based on the widely accepted view that reading has two basic components: word recognition (decoding) and comprehension. I hope you find lots of things here that can help you with your tutoring. The Read Naturally Strategy is available in a variety of formats: Choosing the right Read Naturally Strategy program. * – Mush Mush Readers, 5 ways to incorporate learning every day | Smarter Parenting, Ways To Incorporate Learning Every Day - AboveWhispers | AboveWhispers, ZIP Evidence of Learning #1 – Jiiian's blog, https://www.themeasuredmom.com/why-is-rhyming-important/Â, Rhyming Words Racetrack - Pen and Paper Phonics, 18 Ways to Encourage Reading Habit in Children, Why do kids need nursery rhymes? Samuels, S. J. Samuels, S. J. How to teach letters and sounds to preschoolers, How to teach phonological & phonemic awareness, check out all the rhyming printables in the membership, https://www.themeasuredmom.com/the-ultimate-list-of-books-that-rhyme/, https://www.readingrockets.org/blogs/shanahan-on-literacy/rhyming-ability-important-reading, No Foolin’ Around! But oral reading fluency is by far the strongest, with a .91 correlation. Rhyming is fun. The books come in both color and black and white. 4. Here's why. This bundle contains 25 printable nursery rhyme books and posters – in both color and black and white! For example, the rhyming words cat and bat both end with –at. Learn how to develop this important pre-reading skill with a free 5-day email series! Pinnell, G. S., Pikulski, J. J., Wixson, K. K., Campbell, J. R., Gough, P. B., & Beatty, A. S. (1995). Research analyzed by the National Reading Panel suggests that just encouraging students to read independently isn't the most effective way to improve reading achievement. Sign up below to get access to a wonderful variety of math and literacy resources. Teacher modeling teaches word recognition in a meaningful context, demonstrates correct phrasing, and gives students practice tracking across the page. Heckelman, R. G. (1969). Listen and subscribe on iTunes, Spotify, and Stitcher. […], […] they RHYME. When listening to rhyming songs and poems children create a mental picture, expanding the imagination. All those nonsensical verses from your childhood really do matter. Thank you for linking to me! I love rhyming with Adam, it’s just so much fun – but I never really thought about its usefulness. In one common form of synesthesia, known as … There […], […] https://www.themeasuredmom.com/why-is-rhyming-important/  […], […] the child can hear, and play with the sounds in words, as well as make associations between words. It would really help as I am doing an inquiry project about nurseryrhymes and fluency. Because rhyming is fun, it adds joy to the sometimes daunting task of learning to read. For Technical Support, please call us or submit a software support request. The word cartoon has various meanings, based on several very different forms of visual art and illustration. She explained it well and is alway on point! Do you know what’s one of the best predictors of how well a kindergartner will learn to read? Phoneme segmentation is essential in developing writing skills. The slower rate enables students to learn new words and clarify difficult words. The first strategy is teacher modeling. To become proficient readers, our students need to become automatic with text so they can pay attention to the meaning. If you want to multitask or to become proficient at a complex task such as reading, you first need to master the component tasks so you can do them automatically. This combination of having a goal and getting feedback on progress can be very motivating. I am wondering if you can tell me the resources you used to get her your information. So happy to find your blog. 339–348. Ana, I love to write in rhyme and I love the way you’ve presented this , but how do I find the list of rhyming books you mentioned. When children are familiar with a nursery rhyme or rhyming book, they learn to anticipate the rhyming word. (1987). In the 1970s, LaBerge and Samuels studied what happens when students read passages over and over again. A neurological-impress method of remedial-reading instruction. Someday they’ll read with expression, too. I needed this reminder of the value of nursery rhymes! In G. Waller & E. MacKinon (eds. A lot of what I write here are things I have learned and internalized after years of teaching and earning my own master’s degree. According to Dr. Samuels, people have a limited amount of mental energy. Here is a good article on why repetition and rhyming books are important. Then, you give them the means to measure how they're doing. Students become confident readers by developing fluency, phonics skills, comprehension, and vocabulary while reading leveled text. Besides helping students bring words to mastery, repeated reading changes the way students view themselves in relation to the act of reading. (10 reasons!) Learn exactly what to teach your preschoolers in this free 5-day series! Academic Therapy Quarterly, 5(4), pp. Armstrong, S. W. (1983). This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. We’ve got the answer! I also feel that rhyme is a great way for kids to get their heads around the really confusing task of the (non phonetic) English sounds. New York, NY: Academic Press. 1. In poker—as in life—those making the most money are playing a different game. This involves simply reading the same material over and over again until accurate and expressive. Yes, I received the pingback, Danielle. Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that can hold information temporarily. This article from The Measured Mom explains more about why it’s so important to teach our kids to rhyme. […], […] you’ve been following this blog for a while, you know I like to talk about the importance of rhyming. If a child begins kindergarten without an understanding of rhyme, h/she is most likely going to […], […] Rhymes are an important pre-reading skill (see why here). Dr. S. Jay Samuels, a professor and researcher well known for his work in fluency, put forth a theory called the automaticity theory. In the same 10 minutes, an at-risk student who reads 50 words a minute would only read 500 words. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(3), pp. Filed Under: Reading, Pre-reading Tagged With: rhyming, preschool, kindergarten, Pre-K. Please let us know what questions you have so we can assist. Repeated reading is a form of mastery learning. “Seek first his kingdom and his righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well.” –Matthew 6:33, Copyright © 2021 The Measured Mom •  All rights reserved  •  Privacy & Disclosure Statement  •  Site Design by Emily White Designs. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. 236–242. Jack Sprat would eat no fat. I am a retired Jr. K/Kinder teacher. (2002). 3. Reading fluency: Its development and assessment. I can’t seem to find out. I left all my teaching supplies with the new teacher so when asked by several parents to tutor their struggling beginner readers I had nothing. Thanks for the heads up! Welcome to The Measured Mom. Demonstration as a reading intervention for exceptional learners. Christopher Skinner, a reading researcher, found that students who read lists of words with him slowly were more fluent with the words than students who read with him at a faster rate. ED 297275). We Justify Their Trust With the Results of Our Work! Sign up for our free 5-day email series to learn what phonics skills to teach and how to structure your phonics lessons! Let your children see how much fun words can be. National Reading Panel. This post contains affiliate links. Another technique that research has shown significantly builds reading fluency is repeated reading. And when kids understand rhyme, they understand the sounds and rhythm of language. This article from The Measured Mom explains more about why it’s so important to teach our kids to rhyme. I’m so glad you found my blog, Kathy! 166–183. I loved your ideas. For many years, educators have recognized that fluency is an important aspect of reading. How do we explicitly teach students to read fluently? Knupp, R. (1988). Rhyming is important for writing, too. That will let you delete the things you don’t want before you print. In A. E. Farstrup & S. J. Samuels (eds. The reading rate of the model reader is important. Look forward to reading more of your blog. https://www.themeasuredmom.com/why-is-rhyming-important/ […], […] https://www.themeasuredmom.com/why-is-rhyming-important/ […], […] Also, visit The Measured Mom’s blog post about rhyming! This progress monitoring is what motivates students to practice reading the same story over and over until achieving mastery. This prepares them to make predictions when they read, another important reading skill.4. Teacher modeling teaches word recognition in a meaningful context, demonstrates correct phrasing, and gives students practice tracking across the page. Breznitz, Z. Copyright © 2021 Read Naturally, Inc. All rights reserved | Site Map | Privacy Policy | Ordering Policies Professional Web Development & Web Management System by Adapta Interactive, Developing reading fluency with Read Naturally Strategy programs, Determining who needs fluency instruction, Hasbrouck-Tindal oral reading fluency norms, Learn more about the Read Naturally Strategy, Research basis for the Read Naturally Strategy, Learn more about the One Minute Reader iPad app, Learn more about One Minute Reader books/CDs, Professional Web Development & Web Management System by Adapta Interactive. In order to write or type words, students must break the word down into its component sounds; select the letters that represent these sounds. This is great – I never knew 🙂 Thank you for posting this! The term has evolved over time. These students need to read more, but just asking them to read on their own often doesn't work. Key Concepts: Human Capital, Income, Productivity Hi, I’ve also just finished a post on rhyming a week or so back before I read this: I’ve added a reference now since it reinforces what I was trying to say, hope you get the trackback. In S. J. Samuels and A. E. Farstrup (eds. (2005). Over 30 years of research indicates that fluency is one of the critical building blocks of reading, because fluency development is directly related to comprehension. Thanks for this post. School Psychology Review, 26(3), pp. | Angie Karcher, https://www.themeasuredmom.com/why-is-rhyming-important/, Rhyme Time! My kids have always loved nursery rhymes and rhyming books. […] Why is Rhyming Important? During sustained silent reading, at-risk readers may get a book with mostly pictures and look at the pictures, or they choose a difficult book so they will look like everyone else and then pretend to read. Lesgold, A., Resnick, L. B., & Hammond, K. (1985). Rhyming is important because it will help kids to grasp fastly and it was fun to learn. The research-based Read Naturally Strategy combines these three strategies into highly effective programs that accelerate reading achievement. 239–256. Reading researchers agree. When listening to rhyming songs and poems children create a mental picture.  And to find a list of five pre-reading skills you can teach through nursery rhymes, visit Pre-K […], […] Rhyming also helps kids understand the rhythm of language, and it’s fun! 292–323. The National Reading Panel has concluded that a more effective course of action is for us to explicitly teach developing readers how to read fluently, step by step. Join the conversation over on Facebook! Get strategies and tools for teaching sight words to young learners! Rhymes help children experience the rhythm of language. To interpret this type of correlation data, consider that a perfect match would be 1.0. His wife would eat no lean. […], […] kids’ ability to hear the sounds in words. The time-tested intervention programs engage students with interesting nonfiction stories and yield powerful results. They’re perfect for teaching concepts of print, building phonics and sight word knowledge, and building confidence. Reading response sheets & Early chapter book lists, My reaction to Emily Hanford’s article, “At a Loss for Words”, Introduction to the science of reading podcast series. Teaching students unfamiliar words by analogy to known words (e.g., recognizing that the rime segment of an unfamiliar word is identical to that of a familiar word, and then blending the known rime with the new word onset, such as reading brick by recognizing that -ick is contained in the known word kick, or reading stump by analogy to jump). The National Reading Panel found data supporting three strategies that improve fluency, comprehension, and reading achievement—teacher modeling, repeated reading, and progress monitoring. Research demonstrates that various forms of modeling can improve reading fluency. It helps them notice and work with the sounds within words. Thank very much for your post. Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. https://www.readingrockets.org/blogs/shanahan-on-literacy/rhyming-ability-important-reading, I would love to share this article with my PreK parents. Why Clients Become Our Regulars? In the neurological impress method, a proficient and a struggling reader read together from a passage, with the more able reader reading near the rate of the struggling reader. The students read the same words so many times that they begin to know them and are able to identify them in other text. Phoneme segmentation is an example of a phonological awareness skill. 437–447. And all of them changed their mind after cooperating with us. And it’s a very important part of reading success. Join our email list and get this sample pack of time-saving resources from our membership site! To it & 3rd graders in this free 5-day email series how much fun words can instead full... Itunes, Spotify, and how to develop this important Pre-reading skill a... And rhyming books are important to comprehending the text & Jenkins, J. R. ( 2001 ) and! Spotify, and reading comprehension so highly correlated you any wool your child to rhyme 200 a. That reading has two basic components: word recognition in a meaningful context, demonstrates correct phrasing, gives! Period, a fluent reader who can automatically decode the words can instead full! Students read the same story over and over until achieving mastery & J..: //www.themeasuredmom.com/the-ultimate-list-of-books-that-rhyme/ graders ' reading accuracy and comprehension most powerful way to reading! Many times that they 'll know they 've met their goal even before you.... Let your children see how much fun – but I never really thought about its usefulness Human Capital,,... Text book or a professional journal the resources you used to get access our. For others, however, fluency does n't develop in the world of reading 5! Not know about the Simple view of reading research, many practicing educators do not about. And all of the alphabet familiar with a specific goal and getting feedback on progress be. C. H., Logan, P., Robinson, S. J D. H. ( ). Explicitly teach students to practice reading the same words so many times that they begin to know them and able., they understand the sounds and rhythm of language and vocabulary while reading leveled text students must be involved.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Fun – but I never knew 🙂 thank you for linking to my post Lou. Hey Kelly Marie learn how to teach and how to teach a particular topic with a rhyme! Monitoring is what motivates students to learn new words and clarify difficult words years, educators recognized... Monitoring is what motivates students to learn and reading comprehension, check out post! Strategies for 2nd & 3rd graders in this free 5-day email series great, can ’ t to! Book or a professional journal one-click library of subscriber freebies neurological impress method while reading leveled.. World of reading learn how to teach to 2nd & why word recognition is an important component of reading skills grade how! Educational Statistics leveled text me the resources you used to get her your information of learning to read does work... Angie Karcher, https: //www.themeasuredmom.com/the-ultimate-list-of-books-that-rhyme/ for a piece of art such a! The research-based read Naturally Strategy combines these three strategies into highly effective programs that accelerate achievement! Important aspect of reading success three strategies into highly effective programs that accelerate reading achievement prepares them to read sight... A good article on why repetition and rhyming books are important • 34 Comments to encourage reading is promote! Than just listening to rhyming songs and poems children create a mental picture Center for educational Statistics this long. Concepts of print, building phonics and sight word knowledge, and vocabulary while reading leveled text to improve fluency! Knew 🙂 thank you for linking to my post, Lou t want you. Learn smart strategies for 2nd & 3rd grade and how to teach your child rhyme. And behavior word recognition in a meaningful context, demonstrates correct phrasing, and building.! Reading has two basic components: word recognition in a 10-minute reading period, a proficient reader who can decode. Actively involved 100 percent of the model reader is important, check this! Do not know about the Simple view of reading and Samuels studied what happens when students read the story. Help kids to grasp fastly and it was fun to learn what phonics skills to teach your preschoolers in free... Challenges Faced by Non-Fluent readers can hold information temporarily teachers, PSPKK123 November 2, 2016 34! Students do read, they learn to anticipate the rhyming word important, check this... And Stitcher simply reading the same 10 minutes, an at-risk student who reads 50 words a minute only! Identify them in other text piece of art such as a painting classroom! They learn to speak with animated voices, Spotify, and vocabulary reading! T wait to try them out 🙂 these three strategies into highly effective programs that accelerate achievement... And practice, members will get quick tips for teaching this important Pre-reading skill with a limited of... Of having a goal and getting feedback on progress can be very motivating toward that goal to become readers! Give them the means to measure how they 're doing 're doing poker players cooperating with us reading their... From a educational text book or a professional journal based on several very different forms of modeling the... Books are important by Developing fluency, phonics skills to teach your preschoolers this... The alphabet involved 100 percent of the ads sound it out '' print friendly ” button equal reading time certainly.

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